Plant hormones are endogenous (plant-synthesized) compounds that determine the type of growth and development of the plant.
When photosynthesis and further metabolism predominantly produce compounds that act as energy suppliers or building elements for the formation of different plant structures, plant hormones regulate the rate and type of growth in individual parts of the plant, integrating the activities of these parts in accordance with the plant’s physiological processes and environmental changes. The hormones form a complete body shape, which we perceive as a plant, as well as plant reproduction.
Plant hormones are able to influence plant physiological processes in concentrations that are lower than nutrients and vitamins. Typically, one hormone regulates many different physiological processes in the plant. The intensity of hormonal responses depends not only on the concentration of the hormone in the target tissues and the sensitivity of the tissues to them but also on the various internal and external factors such as the plant, species, individual’s age and physiological state, adverse environmental conditions, and the presence of other hormones. Fitohormons act as switches that turn on when the plant needs it.
Intrinsic properties of phytohotmones AUXINS and CYTOKININS
- Promote cell stretching
- Positively regulate apical domination
- Promote root development
- Promote cell division
- Remove apical domination – promote development of side buds
- Interrupts the period of buds’ sleep
- Inhibit tissue aging